Near-sightedness (myopia) is a common vision condition in which near objects appear clear, but objects farther away look blurry. It occurs when the shape of the eye ball elongates and causes light rays to bend in front of the eye causing a blur image.
Myopia is very common. According to the American Optometric Association, more than 40% of Americans are myopic, a number that is rapidly rising, especially among school-aged children. Eye experts expect this trend to continue in the coming decades.
Today one in four parents has a child with some degree of near-sightedness. Some eye experts believe that if your child spends an extraordinary amount of time engaged in “near” activities, such as reading or using smartphones and computers, it may raise the risk of developing myopia.
Many factors can cause myopia, a mix of hereditary and environmental factors. It’s possible that one can be myopic if the lifestyle produces just the right conditions. For example, if child uses their eyes for a lot of close-up work, such as reading or working on a computer, may develop myopia. Myopia usually appears in childhood and it increases with age.
Symptom include Faraway objects look blurred, Close items appear clear, Headaches, Eye strain, Squinting, Tiredness when driving, playing sports or looking more than a few feet away. This might also show in child’s academic activities causing Poor school grades, shortened attention span, holding objects close to the face.
Myopia is usually diagnosed in normal school screening programmes, Routine Ophthalmic tests with Optometrist and Ophthalmologists, Parents notice in change n Visual behaviour of child etc.
Visual acuity of child is evaluated with subjective and objective methods, along with mydriatic tests been done to check the retina.
Myopia can be easily treated with glasses, contact lenses also with ortho keratology, eye drops instillation along with glasses etc. However, to keep a check on the increasing power in myopic kids needs to be monitored.
Minus corrections are usually used to correct the myopia.
High myopia is said to occur when a person's myopia progresses until they need −5 dioptres or more of spherical correction, although the definitions used to grade myopia are variable.
Prevalence of myopia is increasing globally. It has been predicted that, by the year 2050, high myopia will affect 9.8% of the global population; a total of 938 million people. There is a particular increase in myopia in kids in urban population
Even when appropriate refractive correction is provided, myopia continues to place an individual at an increased risk of sight-threatening diseases, including Glaucoma (open-angle), Cataract (nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular), Retinal tears which may lead to a retinal detachment, Myopic maculopathy or myopic macular degeneration. The incidence of these conditions is greatest in individuals with high myopia. Hence myopia control is a necessary step to be taken in myopic kids.
Recent developments in glasses which is the most common way to correct refractive errors, some modifications or advancements have been done in an effort to control the progression of myopia.
Orthokeratology is also a method in an attempt to control myopia progression is the use of gas-permeable contact lenses that temporarily reshape the cornea to reduce refractive errors such as myopia.